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Oncology Patient Education

Our Health Library information does not replace the advice of a doctor. Please be advised that this information is made available to assist our patients to learn more about their health. Our providers may not see and/or treat all topics found herein.

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Your searched on: breast health

Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI]
Incidence and Mortality. Estimated new cases and deaths from breast cancer (men only) in the United States in 2024:[ 1] New cases: 2,790. Deaths: 530. Male breast cancer is rare.[ 2] Fewer than 1% of all breast carcinomas occur in men.[ 3, 4] The mean age at diagnosis is between 60 and 70 years; however, men of all ages...

Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI]
Note: The Overview section summarizes the published evidence on this topic. The rest of the summary describes the evidence in more detail. Other PDQ summaries with information related to breast cancer screening include the following: Breast Cancer Prevention, Breast Cancer Treatment, Male Breast Cancer Treatment, Breast...

Breast Cancer Treatment During Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI]
Incidence. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in pregnant and postpartum women and occurs in about 1 in 3,000 pregnant women. The average patient is between the ages of 32 years and 38 years. Because many women are choosing to delay childbearing, it is likely that the incidence of breast cancer during pregnancy...

Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI]
Besides female sex, advancing age is the biggest risk factor for breast cancer. Reproductive factors that increase exposure to endogenous estrogen, such as early menarche and late menopause, increase risk, as does the use of combination estrogen-progesterone hormones after menopause. Nulliparity and alcohol consumption...

Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI]
Incidence and Mortality. Estimated new cases and deaths from breast cancer (women only) in the United States in 2024:[ 1] New cases: 310,720. Deaths: 42,250. Breast cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer in U.S. women, with an estimated 56,500 cases of female breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 310,720...

Genetics of Breast and Gynecologic Cancers (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI]
This executive summary reviews the topics covered in this PDQ summary on the genetics of breast and gynecologic cancers. Inheritance and Risk Factors suggestive of a genetic contribution to both breast cancer and gynecologic cancer include 1) an increased incidence of these cancers among individuals with a family...

Childhood Breast Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI]
Incidence and Risk Factors. Fibroadenomas are benign, and they are the most common breast tumors seen in children aged 18 years or younger.[ 1, 2] The prevalence of fibroadenoma is 2.2% in females aged 10 to 30 years.[ 1, 2] The incidence increases with age, although girls aged 12 to 16 years tend to have larger lesions...

Breast Cancer in Men (Male Breast Cancer)
What is male breast cancer? Breast cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in one or both breasts. Male breast cancer usually develops in the breast tissue found behind the nipple. Male breast cancer is often a type called invasive ductal carcinoma. What causes it? The exact cause of male breast cancer isn't known, but...

Breast Cancer: Should I Have Breast Reconstruction After a Mastectomy?
Guides through decision to have breast reconstruction after a mastectomy. Describes what options are available for breast reconstruction and how it is done. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Breast-Conserving Surgery (Lumpectomy) for Breast Cancer
Discusses lumpectomy and partial mastectomy, two types of breast-conserving surgery. Covers what is done and what to expect after surgery, including having radiation therapy. Also looks at risks.

Breast Biopsy
A breast biopsy removes a sample of breast tissue that is looked at under a microscope to check for breast cancer or other problems. A breast biopsy is usually done to check a breast lump or to look at a suspicious area found on a mammogram, an ultrasound, or an MRI. There are several ways to do a breast biopsy. The...

Breast Implant Surgery for Breast Reconstruction
Breast implants recreate the shape of a breast after part or all of the breast is removed ( mastectomy) because of cancer. Several types of implants are available. Sometimes an implant is placed during the same surgery as mastectomy. But often you will have two surgeries. The doctor will first place a tissue expander...

Breastfeeding: How to Use a Breast Pump
A breast pump is a device that allows you to empty milk from your breasts whenever you want to or need to. Then you can store the milk for later. Using a breast pump is a good way to provide the benefits of breastfeeding when you have to be away from your baby. Pumping will help keep up your milk supply. It also...

Breast Cancer: Should I Have Chemotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer?
Guides you through decision to use chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Lists reasons for and against chemotherapy. Covers side effects. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Breast Cancer: Should I Have Breast-Conserving Surgery or a Mastectomy?
Guides you through decision about which surgery to have for early-stage breast cancer. Lists benefits and risks of both mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Mastectomy (Removal of the Breast) for Breast Cancer
Discusses breast cancer surgery. Covers simple mastectomy, modified mastectomy, and radical mastectomy. Covers what to expect after surgery. Looks at risks. Links to info on breast reconstruction.

Dense Breasts
There are different types of tissue inside your breasts. Some breast tissue is fatty. Other breast tissue is dense. "Dense" means your breast tissue has more milk glands, milk ducts, and fibrous tissue than fatty tissue. It is common and normal to have dense breasts. You can't tell how dense your breasts are by looking...

Breast Enlargement
In breast enlargement surgery, the doctor makes the breasts larger by putting an implant under the breast tissue and often under the chest muscle. An implant is a soft silicone shell filled with a saltwater solution or a gel. Your doctor will make a cut, called an incision. Then the doctor will put in the implant and...

Breast Cancer
Provides info on breast cancer for women who have been diagnosed for the first time. Discusses symptoms and how breast cancer is diagnosed. Covers mammogram and clinical breast exam. Discusses treatment options, including mastectomy and chemotherapy.

Inflammatory Breast Cancer
What is inflammatory breast cancer? Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare, fast-growing type of breast cancer. It is often called IBC for short. Unlike other breast cancers, this type of cancer may not cause a lump in the breast. So screening mammograms often fail to catch it early. Because it grows so fast, it usually...

Breast Engorgement
Breast engorgement means your breasts are painfully overfull of milk. This usually occurs when you are making more milk than your baby uses. Your breasts may become firm and swollen, which can make it hard for your baby to breastfeed. Engorgement...

Breast Lumps
Breast lumps are common, especially in women ages 30 to 50. A number of conditions can result in a lump or lumps in your breast. Most of these conditions are harmless or of minor concern. Generalized breast lumpiness usually feels like lots of little bumps (nodularity) or as though some areas of the breast are thicker...

Breast Ultrasound
A breast ultrasound uses sound waves to make a picture of the tissues inside the breast. A breast ultrasound can show all areas of the breast, including the area closest to the chest wall, which is hard to study with a mammogram. Breast ultrasound does not use X-rays or other potentially harmful types of radiation. A...

Breast Reduction
Discusses breast reduction surgery to reshape and reduce breast size. Looks at why it is done and how well it works. Covers what to expect after surgery. Looks at risks, such as scars and infection.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Breast
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio waves to make pictures of the breast. It does not use X-rays. MRI may show problems in the breast that can't be seen on a mammogram, ultrasound, or CT scan. The MRI makes pictures that show your breast's normal structure; tissue damage or...

Breast Pain (Mastalgia)
Many women have breast tenderness and pain, also called mastalgia. It may come and go with monthly periods (cyclic) or may not follow any pattern (noncyclic). Cyclic pain is the most common type of breast pain. It may be caused by the normal monthly changes in hormones. This pain usually occurs in both breasts. It is...

Breastfeeding: Choosing a Breast Pump
A breast pump is a device that allows you to empty milk from your breasts whenever you want to or need to. Then you can store the milk for later. You can also express breast milk by hand ( manual expression). But it takes longer to completely empty a breast this way. Pumps work faster and can be operated by hand, with...

Storing Breast Milk
Breast milk can be released (expressed) by hand or with a pump. Then the milk can be stored to feed your baby later. Breast milk can be stored at room temperature, in the fridge, or in the freezer for certain amounts of time. Storing breast milk properly can help keep it safe to feed to your baby. Why store breast milk...

Breast Problems
Briefly discusses breast changes during puberty, noncancerous breast changes, and when problems may need follow-up care. Offers interactive tool to help decide when to seek care. Also offers home treatment tips.

Breast Changes During Pregnancy
As the rest of your body changes during pregnancy, your breasts change too. They are getting ready to make and supply milk for your baby. First-trimester changes In the first trimester (weeks 1 to 13): Your breasts may start to feel swollen and tender. Your nipples may stick out more than usual. Your breasts may start...

Breast Cancer (BRCA) Gene Test
Discusses BRCA gene test to check chances of breast cancer if your family or personal history shows a high chance for this cancer. Covers a woman's risk of breast or ovarian cancer if she has BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene changes. Discusses possible test results.

Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent
Discusses recurrent breast cancer. Covers symptoms and tests that diagnose cancer that has come back or spread. Discusses treatment with medicine or surgery. Offers home treatment tips for drug side effects or pain. Covers addressing emotional needs.

Hormone Treatment for Breast Cancer
Some breast cancers need the hormones estrogen or progesterone to grow. These cancer cells have "receptors" on their surface that let hormones in. One type is called estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Another type is called progesterone-receptor-positive (PR+) breast cancer. Hormone treatment may be used to...

Breast Cancer Types
Breast cancer is the abnormal growth of the cells that line the ducts and lobes of the breast. When breast cancer has spread outside the ducts or lobes into normal breast tissue, it is said to be invasive. The main types of invasive breast cancer are: Ductal carcinoma. This cancer begins in the ducts of the breast. It's...

Breast Cancer Screening
Learn the basics about breast cancer screening, including who should be screened, why it's important, what tests are used, and how to overcome barriers to screening.

Breast Self-Awareness
Discusses doing regular self-checks to help find breast lumps or changes early. Covers how it is done and what to look for. Also discusses when you should see a doctor.

Breast Exam
A clinical breast examination (CBE) is a physical examination of the breast done by a health professional. Clinical breast examinations are used along with mammograms to check women for breast cancer. Clinical breast examinations are also used to check for other breast problems. A clinical breast examination may be part...

Breast Cancer: What Should I Do if I'm at High Risk?
Guides you through testing and treatment choices if you're at high risk for breast cancer. Covers extra checkups, medicines, and surgery. Lists reasons for and against for each option. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Tissue Flap Surgery for Breast Reconstruction
Discusses breast reconstruction surgery done after mastectomy. Covers two ways of doing the surgery: pedicle flap and free flap. Looks at types of flap surgery: TRAM, latissimus dorsi, DIEP, SIEA, TUG, and gluteal free. Covers what to expect after surgery and risks.

Breast Cancer: Lymph Node Surgery for Staging Cancer
If breast cancer spreads, it often goes to the lymph nodes first. Lymph node surgery is done to find out if cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. The types of lymph node surgery for breast cancer are: Sentinel node biopsy. In a sentinel node biopsy, the doctor removes the first lymph nodes that cancer may have spread to...

Choosing a Prosthesis After Breast Cancer Surgery
Whether to wear a breast form (prosthesis) after breast surgery is a very personal decision. You may want to wear a breast form if: You are waiting for reconstructive surgery. You have decided not to have reconstructive surgery. Your breasts don't look even. You have had only part of your breast removed (lumpectomy)...

Cup-Feeding Baby With Breast Milk or Formula
Cup-feeding is a way to provide breast milk or formula to a baby who is unwilling or unable to breastfeed or drink from a bottle. If you do breastfeed, you can also use cup-feeding instead of bottle-feeding if your baby needs supplementation for a few days. Many babies with special needs can easily learn how to...

Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. The breast is made up of lobes and ducts. Each breast has 15 to 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe has many smaller sections called lobules. Lobules end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and...

Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Male breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Breast cancer may occur in men. Breast cancer may occur in men at any age, but it usually occurs in men between 60 and 70 years of age. Male breast cancer makes up less than 1% of all cases of breast cancer. The...

Childhood Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. The breast is made up of lobes and ducts. Each breast has 15 to 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe has many smaller sections called lobules. Lobules end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and...

Breastfeeding After Breast Surgery
Women who have had breast implants or surgery to remove cysts or benign (noncancerous) lumps usually are able to breastfeed. Women who have had surgery to make their breasts smaller (breast reduction) may have trouble breastfeeding if the milk ducts were cut or removed during surgery. These women may wish to consult...

Family History and the Risk for Breast or Ovarian Cancer
If someone in your family has had breast or ovarian cancer, or some other cancers like pancreatic or prostate cancer, your chances of getting those cancers may be higher. And if you have two or three relatives who have had these cancers, your chances may be even higher. If you have a family history of these cancers, it...

Thinking About Bilateral Mastectomy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer
People with early-stage breast cancer who have breast-conserving surgery ( lumpectomy) followed by radiation treatments live just as long as people who have mastectomy. Some people with early-stage cancer choose to have both the affected breast and the breast without cancer removed. Removing both breasts is called a...

Breast Cancer Risk: Should I Have a BRCA Gene Test?
Guides through decision to have a breast cancer (BRCA) gene test. Includes reasons your doctor might recommend a BRCA gene test. Lists next steps for a positive test. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Radiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer
External beam radiation therapy uses doses of radiation to kill cancer cells. A beam of radiation is aimed at the tumor from outside the body. This treatment is given to most people with early-stage breast cancer who choose breast-conserving surgery such as lumpectomy. How long the treatment takes Many people with early...

Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI]
Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will reduce the burden of cancer and lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. Cancer is not a single disease but a group of related...

Breast Cancer Treatment During Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. The breast is made up of lobes and ducts. Each breast has 15 to 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe has many smaller sections called lobules. Lobules end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and...

Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI]
Screening is looking for signs of disease, such as breast cancer, before a person has symptoms. The goal of screening tests is to find cancer at an early stage when it can be treated and may be cured. Sometimes a screening test finds cancer that is very small or very slow growing. These cancers are unlikely to cause...

Exercises After Breast Cancer Surgery
Provides an overview and step-by-step instructions and photos for doing exercises after breast cancer surgery.

Gynecomastia
What is gynecomastia? Gynecomastia is the overdevelopment of the male breast. A breast has both glandular tissue and fatty tissue. With gynecomastia, the glands in the breast become enlarged. The enlarged glands may feel like a rubbery disk beneath the nipple area. Both breasts are often affected. What causes it...

Quick Tips: Successful Breastfeeding
Offers tips for breastfeeding, including when to feed, how to hold your baby, and how to get a good latch.

Mastitis While Breastfeeding
What is mastitis? Mastitis is a breast inflammation usually caused by infection. It can happen to any woman. But it's most common during the first 6 months of breastfeeding, especially during the baby's first 2 months. After 2 months, the baby's feeding patterns become more regular, which helps prevent mastitis...

Mammogram
Discusses mammogram, an X-ray test of the breasts used to screen for breast problems. Covers at what ages women should have a mammogram. Discusses how it is done and how to prepare for it. Covers possible results.

Nipple Discharge
When you are not breastfeeding, fluid leaking from one or both nipples is called nipple discharge. It may or may not be a sign of a medical problem. Two types of nipple discharge are: Nonspontaneous discharge. This occurs only when you press on your nipple. It is usually normal and occurs in the majority of women at one...

Breastfeeding Your Newborn and an Older Child
Breastfeeding more than one child is called tandem breastfeeding. If you continue to feed your older child along with your newborn, keep in mind that the newborn's feeding is the higher priority. Some general feeding guidelines can help ensure that your newborn is properly nourished: Feed the newborn about 8 to 12 times...

Nutrition While Breastfeeding
Eating well during breastfeeding helps you stay healthy. Eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy or dairy alternatives, and protein foods. Avoid fish high in mercury. And limit alcohol and caffeine. Your doctor or midwife may suggest eating more calories each day than otherwise recommended for a person of...

Breastfeeding: Waking Your Baby
Most medical professionals recommend letting a baby eat on demand. But during the first few days of breastfeeding, your baby will breastfeed at least 8 times in a 24-hour period. This means you may need to wake your baby to eat. This will help to get your milk supply going. Try these tips to make the transition from...

Breastfeeding Multiple Infants
You may choose to breastfeed. This can be more challenging with multiple babies. But support and guidance can help you be successful. Talk to your doctor, your midwife, or a lactation consultant if you need help. Support can also come from a trusted friend or family member or another person with expertise in...

Preventing Mastitis
Mastitis is a breast inflammation sometimes caused by infection. It's most common during the first 6 months of breastfeeding (sometimes called chestfeeding). But it can happen at any time. You can keep breastfeeding your baby. In fact, breastfeeding...

Milk Oversupply
Milk oversupply happens when your body makes more milk than your baby uses. It's sometimes called overabundant milk supply or hyperlactation. With oversupply, your milk may come out very fast. This can make it hard for your baby to swallow it....

Breastfeeding: When Baby Doesn't Want to Stop
There may be times when you want to stop breastfeeding, but your baby shows signs of wanting to continue. If possible, keep breastfeeding a while longer. If you can't, then try these tips: Offer breast milk pumped from your breast, formula, or cow's milk (if your baby is more than 12 months old) in a cup or bottle. Do...

Weaning
Weaning is the process of switching your baby from breastfeeding to bottle-feeding, or from a breast or bottle to a cup or solid foods. Weaning usually works best when it is done gradually over several weeks, months, or even longer. There is no right or wrong time to wean. It depends on how ready you and your baby are...

Breastfeeding and Your Milk Supply
A number of things affect how much milk your breasts make (your milk supply). The two most important things are how often you breastfeed and how well your breast is emptied. Breastfeeding stimulates the hormone that prepares your breasts to make milk ( prolactin). So the more often you feed your baby and empty your...

Hospital Policies and Breastfeeding
It's important to have support from the doctors, nurses, and hospital staff who care for you and your baby. Before it's time for you to give birth, ask about the breastfeeding policies at your hospital or birthing center. Look for a hospital or birthing center that has policies for: "Rooming in." This policy encourages...

Cosmetic Surgery and Procedures
Looks at surgery or procedures that change or restore your appearance. Covers Botox, dermabrasion, face-lift, eyelid surgery (blepharoplasty), nose job (rhinoplasty), breast augmentation and reduction, liposuction, and tummy tuck (abdominoplasty).

Breastfeeding at Work
If you're going to keep breastfeeding after you return to work, it may help to plan ahead. Here are some things to think about. Employer support. Before your child is born, talk to your employer about your breastfeeding plans. Work out the details of where you can breastfeed or pump, and decide how you will store your...

Diet, Breastfeeding, and Colic
The exact cause of colic is not known. It is possible that some foods may affect breast milk and contribute to intestinal gas or other digestive problems. These problems may make crying episodes worse. Foods that often affect breast milk in this way include: Garlic, onions, cabbage, turnips, broccoli, and beans...

Breastfeeding a Sick Baby
Your baby may have signs of a minor illness, such as cold symptoms or mild diarrhea. If so, it's best to keep breastfeeding. Breast milk provides your baby with the best possible nutrition. If your baby is too sick to breastfeed, try cup-feeding. With this technique, you feed your baby collected breast milk. Take your...

Poor Let-Down While Breastfeeding
You sometimes may notice that your milk does not flow easily, or let down, when you attempt to breastfeed or use a breast pump. Emotional stress, fatigue, anxiety, smoking, pain, or being cold are common causes of poor let-down. With poor let-down, you may not experience the tingling and leaking of milk that usually...

Nipple Shields for Breastfeeding Problems
Nipple shields are devices that may help with certain problems with breastfeeding (sometimes called chestfeeding). A nipple shield looks like a little hat with a brim. Many have a cutout area on the brim to allow for more skin-to-skin contact. The...

Breastfeeding: Sore Nipples
Explains what causes sore or cracked nipples from breastfeeding. Provides self-care tips, prevention, and when to get help.

Scrapes
Briefly discusses types of scrapes and how they heal. Offers interactive tool to help decide when to seek care. Also offers home treatment tips.

Breastfeeding When You Have Diabetes
Breastfeeding is good for you and your baby. Even with diabetes, you can have the same chance of success with breastfeeding as anyone else. Here are some tips for eating a healthy diet when you're breastfeeding. Get help from a registered dietitian. It's important to eat a nutritious diet. A registered dietitian can...

Feeding Your Premature Infant
Some premature babies can't be fed by mouth right after birth. If your baby was born before the gestational age of 32 to 34 weeks, he or she can't feed by mouth. The reasons are: Poor coordination (or lack) of sucking, swallowing, and gag reflex. Weakness of both the oral and stomach muscles. Small stomach capacity...

Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead
Provides tips for how to prepare for breastfeeding. Covers talking with your doctor or a lactation consultant, taking a class, connecting with the birthing center, and gathering supplies and support.

Breastfeeding: Exercise and Weight Loss
Keep the following in mind as you start an exercise program or try to lose weight while you are breastfeeding. Exercise Being active helps promote weight loss, improves your energy level, and can help you relieve stress. Follow these tips when you start an exercise program while you are breastfeeding: Start out slowly...

Breastfeeding: Baby's Poor Weight Gain
Most infants lose up to 10% of their birth weight in the first week. A baby's weight decreases from the normal loss of fluid, urine, and stool. Babies also get few calories from early breastfeeding patterns. Their bodies have special fat stores for this early time. Normally, feeding sessions in the first few days...

Breastfeeding Positions
Explains 5 ways to hold your baby for breastfeeding. Includes illustrations.

Signs That Your Baby Is Getting Enough to Eat
Babies give cues during feeding that show how hungry they are. Pay attention to these cues to help know when your baby has had enough to eat. A baby who is hungry will latch on to the breast or bottle and suck continuously. A baby who is getting full during a feeding will take longer pauses between sucking. A baby who...

Feeding Your Infant
Feeding a baby is an important concern for parents. Experts recommend feeding your baby only breast milk for about 6 months. They also support breastfeeding for 2 years or longer. But your baby benefits from any amount of time that you breastfeed. Try to breastfeed for as long as it works for you and your baby. If you...

Feeding Schedule for Babies
Experts recommend that newborns be fed on demand. This means that you breastfeed or bottle-feed your infant whenever they show signs of hunger, rather than setting a strict schedule. Newborns follow their feelings of hunger. They eat when they are hungry and stop eating when they are full. In the first few days after...

Breastfeeding: Using Medicines Safely
Talk to your doctor before you take any prescription or over-the-counter medicines while breastfeeding. That's because some medicines can affect your breast milk. Many medicines are safe to use when you breastfeed. These include: Pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin). Some cold...

Breastfeeding: Should I Breastfeed My Baby?
Guides through decision to breastfeed. Discusses common concerns and issues related to breastfeeding. Links to personal stories. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

COVID-19: Advice if You're Planning a Pregnancy, Pregnant, Recently Pregnant, or Breastfeeding
There are things you can do to protect your health and the health of your baby. Experts recommend getting the COVID-19 vaccine if you are planning a pregnancy, are pregnant, were recently pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you're pregnant or were recently pregnant You are at higher risk for getting seriously ill from...

Problems After Delivery of Your Baby
Briefly discusses problems that may occur in the days and weeks after the delivery of your baby (postpartum period). Covers emergency symptoms like signs of shock, fainting, and severe belly pain. Offers interactive tool to help decide when to seek care. Also offers home treatment tips.

Breastfeeding: Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs
If you are breastfeeding, many things that you eat, drink, or take into your body end up in your breast milk. Some of these things may harm your baby. Tobacco and nicotine. Smoking cigarettes or chewing tobacco may reduce your milk production. It also may make your baby fussy. Babies who are exposed to secondhand smoke...

Sleep, Rest, and Breastfeeding
Rest and sleep are important to breastfeeding women for keeping up their energy and their milk production. Help yourself sleep well Avoid or limit caffeine, especially in the hours before bedtime. Caffeine can keep you awake. Use the evening hours for settling down. Avoid watching TV and using the computer or phone if...

Breastfeeding During Pregnancy
You usually can continue breastfeeding your child if you become pregnant. If you breastfeed while you are pregnant, be aware of the following issues: Breastfeeding during pregnancy is not recommended if you are at risk for preterm labor. Breastfeeding may stimulate uterine contractions, which can lead to premature...

Combining Breastfeeding and Bottle-Feeding
You may choose to breastfeed and use a bottle for some of your baby's feedings. It is best to wait until your baby has been breastfeeding well for several weeks before you try feeding your baby from a bottle. Sometimes the shape of the nipple plays a part in how well your breastfed baby adjusts to bottle feedings. Many...

Breastfeeding After a C-Section
A cesarean delivery may delay the start of breastfeeding. You may be sleepy from medicine or in pain from the surgery. Try breastfeeding your baby as soon as you are able. Ask whether your baby can be brought into the recovery room to be held and breastfed. Ask your nurse or other health professionals to help you...

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