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Oncology Patient Education

Our Health Library information does not replace the advice of a doctor. Please be advised that this information is made available to assist our patients to learn more about their health. Our providers may not see and/or treat all topics found herein.

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Your searched on: breast health

Dense Breasts
What are dense breasts? Breasts come in all shapes and sizes. The tissue inside your breasts can be different types too. Some breast tissue is fatty. Other breast tissue is dense. " Dense" means it's made of thick, fibrous tissue and milk glands. You can learn how dense your breasts are from your mammogram...

Fibrocystic Breasts
What are fibrocystic breast changes? Many women have breasts that feel lumpy, thick, and tender, especially right before their periods. These symptoms are called fibrocystic breast changes. They may also be called cyclic breast changes, because they come and go with your menstrual cycle. Fibrocystic breast...

Breast Lumps
Breast lumps are common, especially in women ages 30 to 50. A number of conditions can result in a lump or lumps in your breast. Most of these conditions are harmless or of minor concern. Generalized breast lumpiness usually feels like lots of...

Breast Engorgement
What is breast engorgement, and what causes it? Breast engorgement means your breasts are painfully overfull of milk. This usually occurs when a mother makes more milk than her baby uses. Your breasts may become firm and swollen, which can make it hard for your baby to breastfeed. Engorged breasts can be treated at...

Breast Biopsy
A breast biopsy removes a sample of breast tissue that is looked at under a microscope to check for breast cancer. A breast biopsy is usually done to check a lump found during a breast examination or to look at a suspicious area found on a mammogram, an ultrasound, or an MRI. There are several ways to do a breast...

Breast Cancer
Provides info on breast cancer for women who have been diagnosed for the first time. Discusses symptoms and how breast cancer is diagnosed. Covers mammogram and clinical breast exam. Discusses treatment options, including mastectomy and chemotherapy.

Breast Ultrasound
A breast ultrasound uses sound waves to make a picture of the tissues inside the breast. A breast ultrasound can show all areas of the breast, including the area closest to the chest wall, which is hard to study with a mammogram. Breast ultrasound does not use X-rays or other potentially harmful types of radiation...

Breast Problems
Breast lumps or changes are a common health worry for most women. Women may have many kinds of breast lumps and other breast changes throughout their lives, including changes that occur with menstrual periods, pregnancy, and aging. Most breast lumps and breast changes are normal. Breast changes in young girls Breast...

Breast Enlargement
Breast enlargement is surgery to make the breasts bigger and improve their shape. This surgery may also be called breast augmentation or augmentation mammoplasty. During breast enlargement, the surgeon places an implant in the breast. An implant is a soft silicone shell filled with silicone gel or saline (salt water)...

Breast Reduction
Discusses breast reduction surgery to reshape and reduce breast size. Looks at why it is done and how well it works. Covers what to expect after surgery. Looks at risks, such as scars and infection. Covers what to think about when having breast reduction.

Breast Exam
A clinical breast examination (CBE) is a physical examination of the breast done by a health professional. Clinical breast examinations are used along with mammograms to check women for breast cancer. Clinical breast examinations are also used to check for other breast problems. A clinical breast examination may be...

Mastectomy (Removal of the Breast) for Breast Cancer
Discusses breast cancer surgery. Covers simple mastectomy, modified mastectomy, and radical mastectomy. Covers what to expect after surgery. Looks at risks. Links to info on breast reconstruction.

Breast Implant Surgery for Breast Reconstruction
Breast implants recreate the shape of a breast after part or all of the breast is removed ( mastectomy) because of cancer. Several types of implants are available. Sometimes an implant is placed during the same surgery as mastectomy. But often you will have two surgeries. The doctor will first place a tissue expander...

Breast Pain (Mastalgia)
What do I need to know about breast pain? Many women have breast tenderness and pain, also called mastalgia. It may come and go with monthly periods (cyclic) or may not follow any pattern (noncyclic). Cyclic pain is the most common type of breast pain. It may be caused by the normal monthly changes in...

Storing Breast Milk
The antioxidant and other protective properties of breast milk are most important and beneficial to your baby when breast milk is fresh. The protective components of breast milk decrease with refrigeration and freezing. But stored breast milk is the next best thing to fresh breast milk as a complete and nutritious food...

Inflammatory Breast Cancer
What is inflammatory breast cancer? Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare, fast-growing type of breast cancer. It is often called IBC for short. Unlike other breast cancers, this type of cancer may not cause a lump in the breast. So regular breast exams and mammograms often fail to catch it early. Because it grows so...

Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI]
Incidence and Mortality Estimated new cases and deaths from breast cancer (men only) in the United States in 2021:[ 1] New cases: 2,650. Deaths: 530. Male breast cancer is rare.[ 2] Fewer than 1% of all breast carcinomas occur in men.[ 3, 4] The mean age at diagnosis is between 60 and 70 years; however, males of all...

Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI]
Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Breast Cancer Prevention, Breast Cancer Treatment (Adult), Male Breast Cancer Treatment, and Breast Cancer Treatment During Pregnancy are also available. Mammography is the most widely used screening modality for the detection of breast cancer. There is evidence that it decreases breast...

Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI]
Besides female sex, advancing age is the biggest risk factor for breast cancer. Reproductive factors that increase exposure to endogenous estrogen, such as early menarche and late menopause, increase risk, as does the use of combination estrogen-progesterone hormones after menopause. Nulliparity and alcohol consumption...

Breast Cancer Treatment (Adult) (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI]
This summary discusses primary epithelial breast cancers in women. The breast is rarely affected by other tumors such as lymphomas, sarcomas, or melanomas. Refer to the following PDQ summaries for more information on these cancer types: Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment Melanoma...

Genetics of Breast and Gynecologic Cancers (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI]
This executive summary reviews the topics covered in this PDQ summary on the genetics of breast and gynecologic cancers, with hyperlinks to detailed sections below that describe the evidence on each topic. Inheritance and Risk Factors suggestive of a genetic contribution to both breast cancer and gynecologic cancer...

Childhood Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI]
Fibroadenoma is the most frequent breast tumor seen in children.[ 1, 2] Sudden rapid enlargement of a suspected fibroadenoma is an indication for needle biopsy or excision, as rare transformation leading to malignant phyllodes tumors has been reported.[ 3] Other benign lesions include tubular adenoma, benign phyllodes...

Breast Cancer in Men (Male Breast Cancer)
Breast cancer in men develops in the small amount of breast tissue found behind a man's nipple. It is often a type called invasive ductal carcinoma. Although the exact cause of breast cancer is not known, most experts agree that some men have a...

Breast Self-Examination
Discusses doing regular self-exam to help find breast lumps or changes early. Covers how it is done and what to look for. Also discusses what results mean and when you should see a doctor.

Breast Cancer Types
Breast cancer is the abnormal growth of the cells that line the ducts and lobes of the breast. When breast cancer has spread outside the ducts or lobes into normal breast tissue, it is said to be invasive. The main types of invasive breast cancer are: Ductal carcinoma, which is cancer that begins in...

Breast Cancer Screening
Experts agree that mammograms are the best screening test for people at average risk of breast cancer. But they don't all agree on the age at which screening should start. And they don't agree on whether it's better to be screened every year or every two years. Here are some of the recommendations from experts...

Breast-Conserving Surgery (Lumpectomy) for Breast Cancer
Discusses lumpectomy and partial mastectomy, two types of breast-conserving surgery. Covers what is done and what to expect after surgery, including having radiation therapy. Also looks at risks.

Breast Cancer: Should I Have Breast-Conserving Surgery or a Mastectomy?
Guides you through decision about which surgery to have for early-stage breast cancer. Lists benefits and risks of both mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Breast Cancer: Should I Have Breast Reconstruction After a Mastectomy?
Guides through decision to have breast reconstruction after a mastectomy. Describes what options are available for breast reconstruction and how it is done. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Breastfeeding: How to Use a Breast Pump
Using a breast pump is a good way to provide the benefits of breastfeeding when you have to be away from your baby. Pumping will help keep up your milk supply and prevent discomfort and breast engorgement. You can also use a breast pump to slowly...

Breast Cancer: Should I Have Chemotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer?
Guides you through decision to use chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Lists reasons for and against chemotherapy. Covers side effects. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Breast Cancer (BRCA) Gene Test
Discusses BRCA gene test to check chances of breast cancer if your family or personal history shows a high chance for this cancer. Covers a woman's risk of breast or ovarian cancer if she has BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene changes. Discusses possible test results.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Breast
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio waves to make pictures of the breast. It does not use X-rays. MRI may show problems in the breast that can't be seen on a mammogram, ultrasound, or CT scan. The MRI makes pictures that show your breast's normal structure; tissue damage or...

Breastfeeding After Breast Surgery
Women who have had breast implants or surgery to remove cysts or benign (noncancerous) lumps usually are able to breastfeed. Women who have had surgery to make their breasts smaller (breast reduction) may have trouble breastfeeding if the milk ducts...

Breastfeeding: Choosing a Breast Pump
If you plan to breastfeed and use a breast pump at times, research your equipment options while you are pregnant. When evaluating the different types of breast pumps, think about how often you will need to use the pump. Think about: How often you will need other caregivers to feed your baby. Whether you will return...

Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent
Discusses recurrent breast cancer. Covers symptoms and tests that diagnose cancer that has come back or spread. Discusses treatment with medicine or surgery. Offers home treatment tips for drug side effects or pain. Covers addressing emotional needs.

Breast Cancer Screening and Dense Breasts: What Are My Options?
Guides you through breast cancer screening choices if you have dense breasts. Discusses the benefits and risks of choosing more testing after a mammogram, such as ultrasound or MRI. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Breast Changes During Pregnancy
As the rest of your body changes during pregnancy, your breasts change too, getting themselves ready to make and supply milk for your baby. Your breasts will get bigger. They may be sore sometimes. Your nipples may change color. It's all a natural part of being pregnant. And if some of these changes bother you, it's...

Hormone Treatment for Breast Cancer
Some breast cancers need the hormones estrogen or progesterone to grow. These cancer cells have "receptors" on their surfaces. Receptors are like doorways to let hormones in. These types of breast cancer are called estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+)...

Radiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer
When is radiation used for early-stage breast cancer? Radiation therapy is given to most women with early-stage breast cancer who choose breast-conserving surgery such as lumpectomy. Their other surgery option is mastectomy, which removes the whole breast. Many women choose breast-conserving surgery...

Tissue Flap Surgery for Breast Reconstruction
Discusses breast reconstruction surgery done after mastectomy. Covers two ways of doing the surgery: pedicle flap and free flap. Looks at types of flap surgery: TRAM, latissimus dorsi, DIEP, SIEA, TUG, and gluteal free. Covers what to expect after surgery and risks.

Breast Cancer Treatment During Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI]
Incidence Breast cancer is the most common cancer in pregnant and postpartum women and occurs in about 1 in 3,000 pregnant women. The average patient is between the ages of 32 years and 38 years. Because many women are choosing to delay childbearing, it is likely that the incidence of breast cancer during pregnancy will...

Thinking About Bilateral Mastectomy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer
For years, studies have shown that for early-stage breast cancer, women who have breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) followed by radiation treatments live just as long as women who have mastectomy. This was good news for women who wanted to avoid...

Cup-Feeding Baby With Breast Milk or Formula
Cup-feeding is a way to provide breast milk or formula to a baby who is unwilling or unable to breastfeed or drink from a bottle. If a mother wants to breastfeed, cup-feeding is also sometimes used as an alternative to bottle-feeding for a baby who needs supplementation for a few days. To cup-feed your baby, fill a...

Signs That Your Baby Is Getting Enough Breast Milk
You can be reassured that your baby is eating enough and is well nourished when he or she: Shows an eager desire and wakes up frequently to breastfeed. Rhythmically sucks and swallows milk. The fronts of your baby's ears will move slightly, and you...

Choosing a Prosthesis After Breast Cancer Surgery
Whether to wear a breast form (prosthesis) after breast surgery is a very personal decision. Some women feel better about themselves when their clothes fit just as they did before surgery. Other women feel comfortable just as they are. You can buy these forms already made, or they can be custom-made from a mold of...

Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI]
Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will reduce the burden of cancer and lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. Cancer is not a single disease but a group of related...

Breast Cancer: Lymph Node Surgery for Staging Cancer
Whether you have a mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) for breast cancer, your doctors need to know whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. Lymph node involvement increases the likelihood that cancer cells have spread through the bloodstream to other parts of the body. Women with some forms of...

Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI]
Screening is looking for signs of disease, such as breast cancer, before a person has symptoms. The goal of screening tests is to find cancer at an early stage when it can be treated and may be cured. Sometimes a screening test finds cancer that is very small or very slow growing. These cancers are unlikely to cause...

Family History and the Risk for Breast or Ovarian Cancer
The average woman has a small chance of getting breast cancer and an even smaller chance of getting ovarian cancer. But if someone in your family has had breast or ovarian cancer, your chances of getting those cancers may be higher. And if you have 2 or 3 relatives who have had these cancers, your chances may be even...

Breast Cancer Treatment (Adult) (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. The breast is made up of lobes and ducts. Each breast has 15 to 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe has many smaller sections called lobules. Lobules end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and...

Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Male breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Breast cancer may occur in men. Breast cancer may occur in men at any age, but it usually occurs in men between 60 and 70 years of age. Male breast cancer makes up less than 1% of all cases of breast cancer. The...

Childhood Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. The breast is made up of lobes and ducts. Each breast has 15 to 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe has many smaller sections called lobules. Lobules end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and...

Breast Cancer Screening: When Should I Start Having Mammograms?
Guides through decision on when to start having mammograms. Discusses the benefits and risks of having a mammogram and the risk for getting breast cancer. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Breast Cancer: What Should I Do if I'm at High Risk?
Guides you through testing and treatment choices if you're at high risk for breast cancer. Covers extra checkups, medicines, and surgery. Lists reasons for and against for each option. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Breast Cancer Risk: Should I Have a BRCA Gene Test?
Guides through decision to have a breast cancer (BRCA) gene test. Includes reasons your doctor might recommend a BRCA gene test. Lists next steps for a positive test. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Breast Cancer Treatment During Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. The breast is made up of lobes and ducts. Each breast has 15 to 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe has many smaller sections called lobules. Lobules end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and...

Gynecomastia
What is gynecomastia? Gynecomastia is overdevelopment of the male breast. In response to too much estrogen (a female hormone) or too little testosterone (a male hormone), the glandular tissue of the breast swells and forms a breast bud (enlarged breast). Gynecomastia can occur in babies, teen boys, and older men...

Mammogram
Discusses mammogram, an X-ray test of the breasts used to screen for breast problems. Covers at what ages women should have a mammogram. Discusses how it is done and how to prepare for it. Covers possible results.

Mastitis While Breastfeeding
What is mastitis? Mastitis is a breast inflammation usually caused by infection. It can happen to any woman, although mastitis is most common during the first 6 months of breastfeeding. It can leave a new mother feeling very tired and run-down. Add the illness to the demands of taking care of a newborn, and many women...

Nipple Discharge
When you are not breastfeeding, fluid leaking from one or both nipples is called nipple discharge. It may or may not be a sign of a medical problem. Nonspontaneous discharge that occurs only when you press on your nipple is usually normal and occurs in the majority of women at one time or another. The discharge...

Milk Oversupply
Milk oversupply happens when a mother makes more milk than her baby uses. It is sometimes called overabundant milk supply or hyperlactation. Many things influence how much milk you produce. The two most important things are how often you breastfeed...

Breastfeeding: When Baby Doesn't Want to Stop
Sometimes a mother wants to stop breastfeeding, but her baby shows signs of wanting to continue. If possible, continue breastfeeding a while longer. If this is not possible, the following suggestions may help you: Offer breast milk pumped from your...

Breastfeeding Multiple Infants
Most mothers can produce enough milk to breastfeed two or more babies. If you have twins or triplets, breastfeeding becomes more physically and emotionally challenging. But with support and guidance, you can be successful. Breastfeeding fosters the...

Scrapes
Scrapes (abrasions) are skin wounds that rub or tear off skin. Most scrapes are shallow and do not extend far into the skin, but some may remove several layers of skin. Usually there is little bleeding from a scrape, but it may ooze pinkish fluid....

Cosmetic Surgery and Procedures
Looks at surgery or procedures that change or restore your appearance. Covers Botox, dermabrasion, face-lift, eyelid surgery (blepharoplasty), nose job (rhinoplasty), breast augmentation and reduction, liposuction, and tummy tuck (abdominoplasty).

Breastfeeding as Birth Control
Breastfeeding can be used as a method of birth control, called the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM). But three conditions must be met to ensure its effectiveness: Your baby must be 6 months of age or younger. After your baby is 6 months old, you are much more likely to become pregnant and need to use another...

Reducing Cancer Risk When You Are BRCA-Positive
If you've found out that you have a BRCA gene change, you may be feeling pretty overwhelmed. But when it comes to cancer, knowledge is power. Now that you know you are BRCA-positive, you can take steps to reduce your risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Thinking about cancer risk Experts know that women who are...

Exercises After Mastectomy
After breast surgery (mastectomy), you may feel some pain going down your arm. Your shoulder and arm may be stiff and hard to move. You may also have some loss of feeling there. The basic exercises described here will help you start moving your arm....

Quick Tips: Successful Breastfeeding
Some aspects of breastfeeding may come naturally. But learning some breastfeeding skills and techniques can help you be more successful. Before your baby is born, take classes, read books, and watch videos that demonstrate breastfeeding techniques....

Breastfeeding at Work
You can continue to breastfeed after you return to work. But it is important to think ahead about practical issues, such as where to store your pumped milk. Some issues to consider include: Employer support. Before your child is born, talk to your employer about your breastfeeding plans. Point out the...

Sexuality While Breastfeeding
Childbirth and breastfeeding may affect your sexual desire. Exhaustion, breast soreness, your baby's demands, and recovery from childbirth may reduce your interest in intimacy with your partner. But you may feel more comfortable having sex after the...

Breastfeeding: Should I Breastfeed My Baby?
Guides through decision to breastfeed. Discusses common concerns and issues related to breastfeeding. Links to personal stories. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Nutrition While Breastfeeding
If you are breastfeeding, your doctor may suggest that you eat more calories each day than otherwise recommended for a person of your height and weight. Be sure to ask your doctor about how much and what to eat if you: Are very active. Begin to lose weight rapidly. Are breastfeeding more than one...

Hospital Policies and Breastfeeding
It is important to have breastfeeding support from your doctors, nurses, and hospital staff who care for you and your baby. Fortunately, most people involved in health care are aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. Before having your baby,...

Problems After Delivery of Your Baby
Looks at problems you may have in the days and weeks after the delivery of your baby (postpartum period). Covers emergency symptoms like signs of shock, fainting, or severe belly pain. Includes interactive tool to help you decide when to call a doctor.

Poor Let-Down While Breastfeeding
You sometimes may notice that your milk does not flow easily, or let down, when you attempt to breastfeed or use a breast pump. Emotional stress, fatigue, anxiety, smoking, pain, or being cold are common causes of poor let-down. With poor let-down, you may not experience the tingling and leaking of milk that usually...

Breastfeeding: Weaning a Toddler
You may choose to wait until your child is a toddler (ages 1 to 2 years) or older to wean him or her from the breast. You may feel that your toddler isn't ready for weaning until later or that you both aren't ready. You may want to initiate it or just let your child stop breastfeeding on his or her own (self-wean)...

Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead
The foundation for breastfeeding is established in the first few weeks after delivery. Planning ahead for breastfeeding can help you build a good breastfeeding routine. Minor problems may occur during breastfeeding. But with proper planning,...

Preventing Mastitis
Mastitis usually happens in nursing mothers when bacteria enter the breast through a cracked or sore nipple. This can cause an infection. Mastitis usually starts as a painful area in one breast. It may be red or warm to the touch, or both. Fever, chills, and body aches usually occur too. Good breastfeeding...

Nipple Shields for Breastfeeding Problems
Nipple shields are devices to help with certain breastfeeding problems. A nipple shield looks like a little hat with a brim. The crown of the hat fits over the nipple, and the brim lies over the areola. Most nipple shields are made of a soft, thin,...

Breastfeeding Your Newborn and an Older Child
Breastfeeding more than one child is called tandem breastfeeding. If you continue to feed your older child along with your newborn, keep in mind that the newborn's feeding is the higher priority. Some general feeding guidelines can help ensure that your newborn is properly nourished: Feed the newborn about 8 to 12...

Breastfeeding
What is breastfeeding? Breastfeeding is feeding a baby milk from the mother's breasts. You can feed your baby right at your breast. You can also pump your breasts and put the milk in a bottle to feed your baby. Doctors advise breastfeeding for 1 year or longer. But your baby benefits from any amount of breastfeeding...

Breastfeeding Positions
Breastfeeding in the proper position will help your baby latch on and breastfeed correctly and make your experience more enjoyable. Also, when you are in a comfortable and relaxed position, let-down occurs more easily. You are more likely to drain...

Breastfeeding: Using Medicines Safely
Talk to your doctor before you take any prescription or nonprescription medicine while breastfeeding. That's because some medicines can affect your breast milk. But many medicines are safe to use when you breastfeed. These include certain pain...

Sleep, Rest, and Breastfeeding
Rest and sleep are important to breastfeeding women for keeping up their energy and their milk production. Avoid or limit caffeine, especially in the hours before bedtime. Caffeine can keep you awake. Use the evening hours for settling down. Avoid...

Breastfeeding a Sick Baby
If your baby has signs of a minor illness (such as cold symptoms or mild diarrhea), it is best to continue your breastfeeding routine. Breast milk provides your baby with the best possible nutrition. If your baby is too ill to breastfeed, try cup-feeding. With this technique, you feed your baby collected breast milk...

Breastfeeding and Your Milk Supply
A number of things influence how much milk you produce (your milk supply). The two most important things are how often you breastfeed and how well your breast is emptied. The hormone that regulates milk production ( prolactin) is stimulated by breastfeeding. So the more frequently you feed your baby and empty your...

Breastfeeding: Waking Your Baby
Most medical professionals recommend letting a baby eat on demand. But during the first few days of breastfeeding, be sure to awaken your baby for feedings about every 2 hours. This will help to get your milk supply going. To make the transition...

Breastfeeding: Sore Nipples
Pain during breastfeeding is a sign of a problem and should not be ignored. Although sore or tender nipples are common during the first few days of breastfeeding, it should improve. Normal soreness or pain usually occurs for about a minute when the baby first latches on to the breast. Pain that is severe or continuous...

Diet, Breastfeeding, and Colic
The exact cause of colic is not known. But some breastfeeding mothers have noticed that certain foods seem to cause colic in their babies. It is possible that some foods may affect breast milk and contribute to intestinal gas or other digestive...

Breastfeeding With Inverted Nipples
Inverted nipples fold inward instead of pointing out. Most women with inverted nipples will still be able to breastfeed. If the baby is having a hard time latching on to the breast, ask your doctor, midwife, or lactation consultant for help. To find...

Weaning
What is weaning? Weaning is the term used to describe the process of switching a baby from: Breastfeeding to bottle-feeding. Breast- or bottle-feeding to a cup. Breast- or bottle-feeding to solid foods. Your baby will go through one or more of these weaning processes. All types of weaning usually work best when...

Breastfeeding: Baby's Poor Weight Gain
Most infants lose up to 10% of their birth weight in the first week. A baby's weight decreases from the normal loss of fluid, urine, and stool. Babies also get few calories from early breastfeeding patterns. Their bodies have special fat stores for...

Feeding Schedule for Babies
Feed your baby whenever he or she seems hungry (on-demand). During the first few days or weeks, breastfeedings tend to occur every 1 to 3 hours around the clock. And formula-feedings tend to occur every 3 to 4 hours around the clock. You may have to wake your sleepy newborn to feed in the first few days after birth...

Bottle-Feeding: Disadvantages for Babies
Infant formulas take two times longer for a baby to digest than breast milk. The slower digestion of infant formula can affect: Feeding frequency. Babies who take infant formula usually want to feed less often than babies who are breastfeeding....

Combining Breastfeeding and Bottle-Feeding
You may choose to breastfeed and give infant formula for some of your baby's feedings. Supplementing breast milk with formula may decrease your supply of breast milk. But it will not stop your breast milk production. It is best to wait until your...

Breastfeeding: Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs
If you are breastfeeding, many substances that you eat, drink, inhale, or inject end up in your breast milk and may harm your baby. Smoking cigarettes or chewing tobacco may reduce your milk production and inhibit the let-down reflex. It also may...

Breastfeeding After a C-Section
A cesarean delivery may delay the start of breastfeeding. You may be sleepy from medicine or in pain from the surgery. Try breastfeeding your baby as soon as you are able. Ask whether your baby can be brought into the recovery room to be held and...

Breastfeeding During Pregnancy
You usually can continue breastfeeding your child if you become pregnant. If you breastfeed while you are pregnant, be aware of the following issues: Breastfeeding during pregnancy is not recommended if you are at risk for preterm labor....

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